Warbirds Downunder 2018

Warbirds Downunder 2018 Logo
Image via Temora Aviation Museum website

A great air show in south central New South Wales, hosted by the Temora Aviation Museum! Their fantastic collection of World War Two and Cold War era aircraft is the basis for the show and as the name predicts there were plenty of warbirds on display, accompanied by modern day RAAF aircraft including fast jets bringing that glorious noise!

Yakovlev Yak-3M, Supermarine Spitfire Mk. VIII & Mk. XVI and Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)
Yakovlev Yak-3UPW, Supermarine Spitfire Mk. VIII & Mk. XVI and Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)
Just part of the lineup at Warbirds Downunder 2018 hosted by the Temora Aviation Museum
Just part of the lineup at Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One) hosted by the Temora Aviation Museum
Cessna A-37B Dragonfly, Yakovlev Yak-3M (modified with a radial engine), Supermarine Spitfire Mk. VIII & Mk. XVI - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)
Cessna A-37B Dragonfly, Yakovlev Yak-3UPW (modified with a Pratt & Whitney radial engine), Supermarine Spitfire Mk. VIII & Mk. XVI – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)
Cessna O-1 Bird Dogs, North American T-28 Trojan, Gloster Meteor F.8, Yakovlev Yak-3M (modified with a radial engine), Supermarine Spitfire Mk. VIII & Mk. XVI - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)
Cessna O-1 Bird Dogs, North American T-28 Trojan, Gloster Meteor F.8, Yakovlev Yak-3UPW (modified with a Pratt & Whitney radial engine), Supermarine Spitfire Mk. VIII & Mk. XVI – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)
RAAF Roulettes aerobatic display team - they will replace the Pilatus PC-9 trainers with the new PC-21 in 2019 - Warbirds Downunder 2018
RAAF Roulettes aerobatic display team – they will replace the Pilatus PC-9 trainers with the new PC-21 in 2019 – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)
RAAF Roulettes - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)
RAAF Roulettes – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)

Speaking of noise, if you like hearing V-12 Rolls Royce Merlin and Allison engines purring, Warbirds Downunder is the place for you! The massed aircraft formation passes were something special too!

Temora Aviation Museum Supermarine Spitfire Mk. VIII & Mk. XVI - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)
Temora Aviation Museum Supermarine Spitfire Mk. VIII & Mk. XVI – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)
Hawker Hurricane Mk.XII - Warbirds Downunder 2018
Hawker Hurricane Mk.XII – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)
Curtiss P-40N Warhawk (Serial Number 42-104986) and P-40E Kittyhawk (Serial Number 41-25109) - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)
Curtiss P-40N Warhawk (Serial Number 42-104986) and P-40E Kittyhawk (Serial Number 41-25109) – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)

Day One on Friday October 12th, was a half day twilight show. Day Two was a full day of flying. Both days offered variations in the aircraft flying, so I was glad I made it to the Friday session, especially when the pair of RAAF 2OCU “Classic” F/A-18A Hornets arrived from RAAF Williamtown and flanked a formation of World War Two era piston engine fighters!

RAAF 2OCU "Classic" F/A-18A Hornets arrived from RAAF Williamtown and flanked a formation of World War Two era piston engine P-40 Kittyhawk and P-51D Mustang fighters at Warbirds Downunder 2018
RAAF 2OCU “Classic” F/A-18A Hornets arrived from RAAF Williamtown and flanked a formation of World War Two era piston engine P-40 Kittyhawk/Warhawk and P-51D Mustang fighters at Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)
Vintage Fighter Restorations Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII amd Temora Aviation Museum Supermarine Spitfires Mk.VIII and Mk.XVI - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Vintage Fighter Restorations Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII and Temora Aviation Museum Supermarine Spitfires Mk.VIII and Mk.XVI – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Curtiss P-40E Kittyhawk (Serial Number 41-25109) & P-40N Warhawk (Serial Number 42-104986) – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Pay’s Warbird Collection North American P-51D Mustang (S/N 45-11526 VH-FST) & Matt Hall's CAC Mustang painted as A68-769, the personal aircraft of the CO of RAAF No. 82 Squadron in Japan - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Pay’s Warbird Collection North American P-51D Mustang (S/N 45-11526 VH-FST) & Matt Hall’s CAC Mustang painted as A68-769, the personal aircraft of the CO of RAAF No. 82 Squadron in Japan – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
American designed WW2 Air Power - North American P-51D Mustangs & Curtiss P-40 Kittyhawks - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
American designed WW2 Air Power – CAC/North American P-51D Mustangs & Curtiss P-40 Kittyhawk/Warhawk – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Classic warbirds - Curtiss P-40N Kittyhawk, CAC Mustang, Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII & Supermarine Spitfire Mk. VIII - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Classic warbirds – Curtiss P-40N Warhawk, CAC Mustang, Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII & Supermarine Spitfire Mk. VIII – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Classic warbirds - Curtiss P-40N Kittyhawk, CAC Mustang, Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII & Supermarine Spitfire Mk. VIII - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Classic warbirds – Curtiss P-40N Warhawk, CAC Mustang, Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII & Supermarine Spitfire Mk. VIII – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Classic warbirds - Curtiss P-40N Kittyhawk, CAC Mustang, Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII & Supermarine Spitfire Mk. VIII - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Classic warbirds – Curtiss P-40N Warhawk, CAC Mustang, Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII & Supermarine Spitfire Mk. VIII – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
V-12 Power! P-51D Mustangs, P-40 Kittyhawks & Spitfires - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
V-12 Power! P-51D Mustangs, P-40 Kittyhawk/Warhawk & Spitfires – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)

The air show was well attended on both days. The town of Temora swelled on the Saturday from a normal population of around 4,000 to 20,000+ people!

The crowd enjoying the show in the general public section - in addition there were reserved seating grandstands - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
The crowd enjoying the show in the general public section – in addition there were reserved seating grandstands – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Warbirds Downunder 2018, Temora NSW
Warbirds Downunder 2018, Temora NSW
Warbirds Downunder 2018, Temora NSW
Warbirds Downunder 2018, Temora NSW
Warbirds Downunder 2018, Temora NSW
Warbirds Downunder 2018, Temora NSW
Warbirds Downunder 2018, Temora NSW
Warbirds Downunder 2018, Temora NSW
Historical Aircraft Restoration Society (HARS) Consolidated PBY-6A Catalina "Felix", Temora Aviation Museum Lockheed Hudson (the only flyer in the world) & Grumman TBM-3 Avenger (VH-MML) - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Historical Aircraft Restoration Society (HARS) Consolidated PBY-6A Catalina “Felix”, Temora Aviation Museum Lockheed Hudson (the only flyer in the world) & Grumman TBM-3 Avenger (VH-MML) – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Nanchang CJ-6 trainers of the Russian Roolettes aerobatic display team practicing before the show - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)
Nanchang CJ-6 trainers of the Russian Roolettes aerobatic display team practicing before the show – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)
Nanchang CJ-6 trainers of the Russian Roolettes aerobatic display team and their colourful nose art - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Nanchang CJ-6 trainers of the Russian Roolettes aerobatic display team and their colourful nose art – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Nose art at Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Cessna O-1 Bird Dog, BAE Hawk 127 & PBY-6 Catalina)
Nose and tail art at Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Cessna O-1 Bird Dog, BAE Hawk 127 & PBY-6 Catalina)
Nose art at Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Cessna O-1 Bird Dog, DHC-4 Caribou & Lockheed Hudson)
Nose art at Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Cessna O-1 Bird Dog, DHC-4 Caribou & Lockheed Hudson)
Historic military vehicles at Warbirds Downunder 2018
Historic military vehicles at Warbirds Downunder 2018

Photography was a bit tough in the general public area, with dusty conditions on both days and facing the west, being backlit by the sun for much of the Friday twilight show. It was a cloudy, low light day for much of the Saturday. Those further across in the grandstands and silver seating area seemed to get good value for their money, with a more favourable angle of the sun. Despite this, the flying program and displays were excellent on both days!

Grumman TBM-3 Avenger (VH-MML) & CAC CA-13 Boomerang - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)
Grumman TBM-3 Avenger (VH-MML) & CAC CA-13 Boomerang – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)
Yakovlev Yak-3UPW "Steadfast" modified with a Pratt & Whitney R-2000 radial engine - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One & Two). This aircraft set an official international speed record for piston-engined aircraft in the under-3,000 kg (6,615-pound) category of 655 km/h (407 mph) in 2011 over the salt flats in Utah.
Yakovlev Yak-3UPW “Steadfast” modified with a Pratt & Whitney R-2000 radial engine – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One & Two). This aircraft set an official international speed record for piston-engined aircraft in the under-3,000 kg (6,615-pound) category of 655 km/h (407 mph) in 2011 over the salt flats in Utah.
Yakovlev Yak-3M "Steadfast" modified with a radial engine - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)
Yakovlev Yak-3UPW “Steadfast” – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)
Temora Aviation Museum Lockheed Hudson bomber (S/N A16-112) is the only flying example in the world. This aircraft was built on 1939 and served with the RAAF during WW2 - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Temora Aviation Museum Lockheed Hudson bomber (S/N A16-112) is the only flying example in the world. This aircraft was built on 1939 and served with the RAAF during WW2 – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
The Hudson demonstrating the bomb bay doors at Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
The Hudson demonstrating the bomb bay doors at Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Historical Aircraft Restoration Society (HARS) Consolidated PBY-6A Catalina "Felix" Warbirds Downunder 2018
Historical Aircraft Restoration Society (HARS) Consolidated PBY-6A Catalina “Felix” – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
North American T-6 Harvard trainers - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
North American T-6 Harvard trainers – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Both the North American T-6 Texan/Harvard and the CAC CA-16 Wirraway WW2 era trainers were both developed from the North American NA-16 trainer. The CAC CA-13 Boomerang fighter was in turn developed from the basis of the Wirraway - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Both the North American T-6 Texan/Harvard and the CAC CA-16 Wirraway WW2 era trainers were both developed from the North American NA-16 trainer. The CAC CA-13 Boomerang fighter was in turn developed from the basis of the Wirraway – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation history lives at the Temora Aviation Museum - The CAC Wirraway and Boomerang took flight during Warbirds Downunder 2018. The similarities in the design of these stablemates are evident side by side (despite the drab light!) - Warbirds Downunder 2018
Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation history lives at the Temora Aviation Museum – The CAC Wirraway and Boomerang took flight during Warbirds Downunder 2018. The similarities in the design of these stablemates are evident side by side (despite the drab light!) – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Temora Aviation Museum CAC CA-13 Boomerang (A46-122) - Warbirds Downunder 2018
Temora Aviation Museum 1943 CAC CA-13 Boomerang (A46-122) – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
RAAF McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A Hornet (2OCU) in formation with the Temora Aviation Museum Gloster Meteor F.8 - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
RAAF McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A Hornet (2OCU) in formation with the Temora Aviation Museum Gloster Meteor F.8 – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
RAAF McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A Hornet (2OCU) in formation with the Temora Aviation Museum Gloster Meteor F.8 - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
RAAF McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A Hornet (2OCU) in formation with the Temora Aviation Museum Gloster Meteor F.8 – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Temora Aviation Museum Gloster Meteor F.8 (Serial Number VZ467 - the only flying example) - although in Korean War era RAAF No. 77 Squadron markings it was a former RAF example produced in 1949 - Warbirds Downunder 2018
Temora Aviation Museum Gloster Meteor F.8 (Serial Number VZ467 – the only flying example) – although in Korean War era RAAF No. 77 Squadron markings it was a former RAF example produced in 1949 – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Temora Aviation Museum Gloster Meteor F.8 - Warbirds Downunder 2018
Temora Aviation Museum Gloster Meteor F.8 – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Temora Aviation Museum Gloster Meteor F.8 taxiing after a flight display at Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)
Temora Aviation Museum Gloster Meteor F.8 taxiing after a flight display at Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)
RAAF 2OCU McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A Hornet take-off at Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
RAAF 2OCU McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A Hornet take-off at Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Top Pass - RAAF 2OCU McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A Hornet - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Top Pass – RAAF 2OCU McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A Hornet – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Clean Pass - RAAF 2OCU McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A Hornet - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Clean Pass – RAAF 2OCU McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A Hornet – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Dirty Pass - RAAF 2OCU McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A Hornet - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Dirty Pass – RAAF 2OCU McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A Hornet – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Temora Aviation Museum Cessna A-37B Dragonfly (1968 - Serial Number 68-10779) - this sprightly attack aircraft served with the South Vietnamese Air Force (VNAF). It was captured in 1975 and then served in the Vietnamese People’s Air Force - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Temora Aviation Museum Cessna A-37B Dragonfly (1968 – Serial Number 68-10779) – this sprightly attack aircraft served with the South Vietnamese Air Force (VNAF). It was captured in 1975 and then served in the Vietnamese People’s Air Force – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
RAAF old and new - CAC Mustang and BAE Hawk 127 - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
RAAF old and new – CAC Mustang and BAE Hawk 127 – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
RAAF No. 76 Squadron BAE Hawk 127 from RAAF Williamtown - Warbirds Downunder 2018
RAAF No. 76 Squadron BAE Hawk 127 from RAAF Williamtown – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
RAAF No. 2 Squadron Boeing E-7A Wedgetail AEW&C aircraft - Warbirds Downunder (Day One)
RAAF No. 2 Squadron Boeing E-7A Wedgetail AEW&C aircraft – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)
RAAF No. 2 Squadron Boeing E-7A Wedgetail AEW&C aircraft - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)
RAAF No. 2 Squadron Boeing E-7A Wedgetail AEW&C aircraft – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)
RAAF No. 36 Squadron Boeing C-17 Globemaster III - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
RAAF No. 36 Squadron Boeing C-17 Globemaster III – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Return pass by the RAAF No. 36 Squadron Boeing C-17 Globemaster III - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Return pass by the RAAF No. 36 Squadron Boeing C-17 Globemaster III – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Historical Aircraft Restoration Society (HARS) former RAAF de Havilland Canada DHC-4 Caribou STOL tactical transport - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Historical Aircraft Restoration Society (HARS) former RAAF de Havilland Canada DHC-4 Caribou STOL tactical transport – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Historical Aircraft Restoration Society (HARS) former RAAF de Havilland Canada DHC-4 Caribou STOL tactical transport - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Historical Aircraft Restoration Society (HARS) former RAAF de Havilland Canada DHC-4 Caribou STOL tactical transport – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
RAAF Historical Training Aircraft Flight - PAC CT-4 Airtrainers, CAC Winjeel and North American T-6 Harvard - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
RAAF Historical Training Aircraft Flight – PAC CT-4 Airtrainers, CAC Winjeel and North American T-6 Harvard – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
CAC CA-25 Winjeel 1950's era RAAF training aircraft - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
CAC CA-25 Winjeel 1950’s era RAAF training aircraft – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Former RAAF PAC CT-4 Airtrainers - the type first entered RAAF service in the 1970's - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)
Former RAAF PAC CT-4 Airtrainers – the type first entered RAAF service in the 1970’s – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)

A small number of visiting aircraft were unable to attend the air show. Apart from this, there was only one other major aircraft related issue I noted – The Battle of Britain Memorial Flight had formed up nicely on Day Two with the Temora Aviation Museum Supermarine Spitfires, a Mk.VIII and Mk.XVI flying with the Vintage Fighter Restorations Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII, when the latter seemed to have encountered an issue and had some form of liquid streaming from the port wing (see photo below). The Hurricane safely landed immediately after this pass but did not fly again that day.

The Battle of Britain Memorial Flight had formed up nicely on Day Two with the Temora Aviation Museum Supermarine Spitfires, a Mk.VIII and Mk.XVI flying with the Vintage Fighter Restorations Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII, when the latter obviously encountered an issue and had some form of liquid streaming from the port wing Warbirds Downunder 2018
The Warbirds Downunder 2018 Battle of Britain Memorial Flight had formed up nicely on Day Two with the Temora Aviation Museum Supermarine Spitfires, a Mk.VIII and Mk.XVI flying with the Vintage Fighter Restorations Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII, when the latter obviously encountered an issue and had some form of liquid streaming from the port wing (Day Two)
Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII (Serial Number 5481) landing after encountering an issue in flight during Warbirds Downunder 2018
Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII (Serial Number 5481) landing after encountering an issue in flight during Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day Two)

Supermarine Spitfire Mk.VIII (A58-758) was built in 1944 and was the last Spitfire acquired by the RAAF in 1945 – although this aircraft did not see operational service, it wears the markings of RAAF Wing Commander R.H. “Bobby” Gibbes DSO DFC. Spitfire Mk.XVI (Serial Number TB863) was built in 1944 for the RAF and saw operational service targeting railways in Holland in 1945. The Hawker Hurricane Mk. XII (Serial Number 5481) is a 1942 RCAF example, painted to represent an RAF No. 46 Squadron Hurricane Mk.I flown by Australian John Dallas Crossman, who was shot down and killed by a Luftwaffe Bf 109 in September 1940.

RAAF No. 2 Operational Conversion Unit (2OCU) McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A Hornet from RAAF Williamtown - Warbirds Downunder 2018
RAAF No. 2 Operational Conversion Unit (2OCU) McDonnell Douglas F/A-18A Hornet from RAAF Williamtown – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)
RAAF 2OCU Hornets & No. 76 Squadron Hawk - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)
RAAF 2OCU Hornets & No. 76 Squadron Hawk – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)
RAAF 2OCU F/A-18 Hornet - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)
RAAF 2OCU F/A-18 Hornet – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)
Refuelling RAAF 2OCU F/A-18 Hornet - Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)
Refuelling RAAF 2OCU F/A-18 Hornet – Warbirds Downunder 2018 (Day One)
The RAAF No. 37 Squadron Lockheed C-130J Hercules arrived early at Temora on the second day of Warbirds Downunder 2018
The RAAF No. 37 Squadron Lockheed C-130J Hercules arrived early at Temora on the second day of Warbirds Downunder 2018
RAAF No. 37 Squadron Lockheed C-130J Hercules departs Temora at the end of Warbirds Downunder 2018
RAAF No. 37 Squadron Lockheed C-130J Hercules departs Temora at the end of Warbirds Downunder 2018 – they took off, then circled back around to make a final pass over the Temora Airport

Although in the past I have been to a number of flying days at Temora, this was my first time attending Warbirds Downunder and it won’t be my last! The Temora team put together a very well run and highly enjoyable air show! Reasonably priced food and coffee, along with great traffic management was also a bonus!

The Southern Knights flying a mix of North American T-6 Texan/Harvard/SNJ trainers closed out the twilight show on the Friday of Warbirds Downunder 2018
The Southern Knights flying a mix of North American T-6 Texan/Harvard/SNJ trainers closed out the twilight show on the Friday of Warbirds Downunder 2018
End of Day One at Wardirds Downunder 2018 - Historical Aircraft Restoration Society (HARS) de Havilland Canada DHC-4 Caribou and Consolidated PBY-6A Catalina "Felix" at sunset
End of Day One at Wardirds Downunder 2018 – Historical Aircraft Restoration Society (HARS) de Havilland Canada DHC-4 Caribou and Consolidated PBY-6A Catalina “Felix” at sunset
Advertisements

13 thoughts on “Warbirds Downunder 2018

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.